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.- Prabhjot Singh -.

.. Concept Of Kaal Purakh In Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji ..

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Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa

Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh Guru Roop Sangat Jeo,

With Sri Sri Guruji's infinite blessings, here is part 1 on the new series of articles on the concept of Kaal Purakh in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji. There are many doubts in the minds of Sangat regarding 'differences' between Akaal Purakh and Kaal Purakh. Hopefully, this (and the subsequent articles) will help dispel myths and refute lies spread by nindaks, excommunicated cartoons and anti-panthic forces from time to time. I would also feel highly blessed if some khojee is able to receive some spiritually benefit from this article.

As with previous series of articles on Sri Charitropakhyan, the following references have been used extensively for this series too:

  • Dr. Harbhajan Singh Ji - Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Karta Sambhandi Vivad Di Punar Samikheya (Punjabi University, Patiala)
  • Pandit Narain Singh Ji's Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji Steek
  • Mahaan Kosh (Bhai Kahn Singh Ji Nabha)
  • Sri Sarbloh Granth Sahib Ji Steek (Baba Santa Singh Ji, Buddha Dal)

Also, many thanks to Bhai Jvala Singh Ji, Bhai Kamalpreet Singh and N30 Singh veerji for their help, may Waheguru Ji keep you all in Chardi Kalaa..


Prabhjot Singh

Concept of Kaal Purakh in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji (part 1)

The meanings of word 'ਕਾਲ' (Kaal) in Sanskrit language are - black, 'black or blue' in colour, time, appropriate or determined time, a fraction of time, one out of nine types of fluids as specified in Vaisheshik Shastar, Yama - Devta of death, the Destroyer Akal Purakh, a division of something, black pupil in eye, koel (bird), Shiv, the planet Saturn, Iron, present time, etc. It is important to mention here that in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji, Shiv is not a principle meaning; rather it is just another synonym of Kaal. The root meaning of Kaal here is focussed on the word 'Kaalakh' (ਕਾਲਖ) which means blackness, darkness, smudge or blemish. Like Kaal, Kaalakh also appears with the creation of material world and disappears with the imperceptibility of everything materialistic, that is why an inseparable relation exists between the two. Kaal and Kaalakh are not indestructible, both are perishable. Similarly, not only are they alike, they also come from only one source - Akaal is the creator of both of them. He gives birth to both from within Himself and also manifests in both of them, yet remains clandestine and as such is indestructible and blemish-less. Kaal has its origin from Akaal, its existence depends on Him and becomes one with Akaal in the end, that is why Kaal and Akaal both are different manifestations of the same form. In the very beginning of Sri 'Japji Sahib' too, we are told that Akaal is both manifested in and yet independent of Kaal.

ਆਦਿ ਸਚੁ ਜੁਗਾਦਿ ਸਚੁ ॥ ਹੈ ਭੀ ਸਚੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਹੋਸੀ ਭੀ ਸਚੁ ॥

True In The Primal Beginning. True Throughout The Ages.

Kaal is associated with history. Because of this, the Kaal form of Sri Waheguru Ji is associated with His manifestations in history. The temporal or historical manifestations of Waheguru make Him revered deity of faiths, with which He takes on leadership of certain faiths and also becomes the biased destroyer of opposing faiths. It is this Maya-like manifestation of Sri Waheguru Ji that has been named as Kaal. It is because of this, Kaal has been devoid of the honour given to Akaal Purakh, as in 'ਸਭੇ ਸਾਝੀਵਾਲ ਸਦਾਇਨਿ ਤੂੰ ਕਿਸੈ ਨ ਦਿਸਹਿ ਬਾਹਰਾ ਜੀਉ ' (All share in Your Grace; none are beyond You). If Kaal is not made revered deity of faiths, neither concrete footing takes place for growth of these religious organisations, nor enough zeal is awakened amongst people to rise up and become martyrs for righteous causes. However, if it becomes deity of all faiths, then it cannot be 'ਸਭਨਾ ਜੀਆ ਕਾ ਇਕੁ ਦਾਤਾ' - (There is but one Bestower for all the beings). Universal commonality can only originate from Akaal Purakh, while collective zeal for 'ਚੁਨ ਚੁਨ ਸ਼ੱਤ੍ਰੁ ਹਮਾਰੇ ਮਾਰਿਯਹਿ' (may all my enemies be singled out and killed) cannot propagate without having faith in the existence of Kaal. The Vedic faith as a religious movement was fully capable of fighting demonic forces so long as Kaal-Purakh was in command of leadership in the form of the Rig Veda's Indra, Ramayana's Sri Ram, and Mahabharata's Sri Krishna, but all these manifestations could not find refuge under the blanket of Akaal Purakh and offshoot movements took birth with different 'Kaal-Purakhs', and as result, the once strong, united religious movement broke into several pieces and eventually became feeble and dysfunctional. There were attempts to stop this disintegration by giving 'immortal leader' status to Vishnu but then they also established two other Devtas parallel to him (Brahma and Mahesh) and formed the 'Great Trinity', a philosophy which 'divided' the supremacy of one Akaal Purakh and thus was unable to stop the movement's downfall. Those who remembered only 'Akaal Purakh' in their hearts and minds could not do any active work for the movement, while others who believed in only His temporal manifestations got devoid of His capable guidance. As a result, Arya Samaj - the staunch believer of Vedas, could not free itself from religious narrow-mindedness and also failed miserably to provide continuous encouragement to its followers. Bhai Gurdas Ji has given exquisite disquisition of this degradation in his first Vaar.

Sikh religion, on the other hand, not only gave birth to order that has a balanced faith on both 'Akaal' and 'Kaal' forms of Sri Waheguru Ji, but also arranged them according to their purpose. The 'Akaal' form of Sri Waheguru is common to entire humanity; that is why this form has been given the principle position in the faith. Good virtues are possessions of human beings, and 'Akaal Purakh' is the root of everything virtuous.

Therefore, it is the ultimate objective of all human beings and their faiths to attain the common emancipator Sri Waheguru Ji. That is why, the path of attainment of this all-virtuous 'Akaal Purakh' in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji has been kept common for everyone. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is not only the spiritual leader of the Sikhs, but also of entire humanity. They also channelise divine qualities in the heart of every human being. Dhan Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji has universal message for people of all faiths, that is why an image of vice-free spiritual man can be seen in the 'Shabad Guru', but not that of sturdy Khalsa kaum, because only 'Kaal Purakh' can be the only source of inspiration for it. Because 'Akaal Purakh' is the everlasting, unshakable, and primal form of Sri Waheguru Ji, Sikh Gurus established association with this form first so that the foundation of religious movement could be built on the roots of pure spirituality. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji played an unparalleled role by giving the strong form of 'Khalsa' to such people of clear conscience. Even though Khalsa was to be created out of the Gurmukhs created by the previous Guru Sahibs, it is Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji who came up with the plan of integrating the religious movement in the form of Khalsa. To give necessay inspiration to this faction of Gurmukhs, he paid special interest in writing extensive parables illustrating the characteristics of 'Kaal Purakh'. He had a unique task in front of him and as such the Bani he gave us while completing this task imperatively had to be little different of the Bani of previous Gurus. Therefore, it was natural and necessary to keep the parables of 'Kaal Purakh' completely separate from the divine praises of 'Akaal Purakh'. In this way, Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji has nothing but pure praises of the divine 'Akaal Purakh', the message which is universal in nature and can be received by anyone, regardless of their affiliations with other religious orders. Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji contain descriptions of various manifestations of 'Kaal Purakh' in history, which become the source of enthusiasm, pride and generate inspiration for religious struggles for the Khalsa Panth.

'Akaal' and 'Kaal' are two different forms of the same primal being Sri Waheguru Ji, thus there are many places in Sri Guru Granth Sahib where His 'Kaal' form has been depicted, even though it has not been explicitly termed as 'Kaal' anywhere. For instance:

ਸਤਰਿ ਸੈਇ ਸਲਾਰ ਹੈ ਜਾ ਕੇ ॥

He has 7,000 commanders,

ਸਵਾ ਲਾਖੁ ਪੈਕਾਬਰ ਤਾ ਕੇ ॥

and hundreds of thousands of prophets;

ਸੇਖ ਜੁ ਕਹੀਅਹਿ ਕੋਟਿ ਅਠਾਸੀ ॥

He is said to have 88,000,000 shaykhs,

ਛਪਨ ਕੋਟਿ ਜਾ ਕੇ ਖੇਲ ਖਾਸੀ ॥੧॥

and 56,000,000 attendants. ||1||(Ang 1161,SGGS Ji)

ਪਾਖੰਤਣ ਬਾਜ ਬਜਾਇਲਾ ॥

Playing on the instrument of the feathered wings,

ਗਰੁੜ ਚੜ੍ਹ੍ਹੇ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਆਇਲਾ ॥੧੫॥

the Lord of the Universe came, mounted on the eagle garura. ||15||

ਅਪਨੇ ਭਗਤ ਪਰਿ ਕੀ ਪ੍ਰਤਿਪਾਲ ॥

He cherished His devotee,

ਗਰੁੜ ਚੜ੍ਹ੍ਹੇ ਆਏ ਗੋਪਾਲ ॥੧੬॥

and the Lord came, mounted on the eagle garura. ||16||

ਕਹਹਿ ਤ ਧਰਣਿ ਇਕੋਡੀ ਕਰਉ ॥

The Lord said to him, ""If you wish, I shall turn the earth sideways.

ਕਹਹਿ ਤ ਲੇ ਕਰਿ ਊਪਰਿ ਧਰਉ ॥੧੭॥

If you wish, I shall turn it upside down. ||17||(Ang 1166,SGGS Ji)

ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਭੈਆਨ ਰੂਪੁ ਨਿਕਸਿਆ ਥੰਮ੍ਹ੍ਹ ਉਪਾੜਿ ॥

In an instant, the Lord appeared in a dreadful form, and shattered the pillar.

ਹਰਣਾਖਸੁ ਨਖੀ ਬਿਦਾਰਿਆ ਪ੍ਰਹਲਾਦੁ ਲੀਆ ਉਬਾਰਿ ॥੪॥

Harnaakhash was torn apart by His claws, and Prahlaad was saved. ||4||(Ang 1133, SGGS Ji)

ਜਾ ਤੁਧੁ ਭਾਵੈ ਤੇਗ ਵਗਾਵਹਿ ਸਿਰ ਮੁੰਡੀ ਕਟਿ ਜਾਵਹਿ ॥

When it pleases You, we wield the sword, and cut off the heads of our enemies.(Ang 145,SGGS Ji)

ਕਾਢਿ ਖੜਗੁ ਕਾਲੁ ਭੈ ਕੋਪਿਓ ਮੋਹਿ ਬਤਾਉ ਜੁ ਤੁਹਿ ਰਾਖੈ ॥

Harnaakhash thundered with rage and threatened to kill Prahlaad. ""Tell me, who can save you?""

ਪੀਤ ਪੀਤਾਂਬਰ ਤ੍ਰਿਭਵਣ ਧਣੀ ਥੰਭ ਮਾਹਿ ਹਰਿ ਭਾਖੈ ॥੪॥

Prahlaad answered, ""The Lord, the Master of the three worlds, is contained even in this pillar to which I am tied.""||4||||5||11||21||(Ang 1165,SGGS Ji)

ਸੁਥਰ ਚਿਤ ਭਗਤ ਹਿਤ ਭੇਖੁ ਧਰਿਓ ਹਰਨਾਖਸੁ ਹਰਿਓ ਨਖ ਬਿਦਾਰਿ ਜੀਉ ॥

For the sake of the pure-hearted devotee Prahlaad, You took the form of the man-lion, to tear apart and destroy Harnaakhash with your claws.

ਸੰਖ ਚਕ੍ਰ ਗਦਾ ਪਦਮ ਆਪਿ ਆਪੁ ਕੀਓ ਛਦਮ ਅਪਰੰਪਰ ਪਾਰਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਲਖੈ ਕਉਨੁ ਤਾਹਿ ਜੀਉ ॥

You are the Infinite Supreme Lord God; with your symbols of power, You deceived Baliraja; who can know You?(Ang 1402,SGGS Ji)

ਨਾਨਕ ਹਰਣਾਖਸੁ ਨਖੀ ਬਿਦਾਰਿਆ ਅੰਧੈ ਦਰ ਕੀ ਖਬਰਿ ਨ ਪਾਈ ॥੫॥੧੧॥੨੧॥

O Nanak, Harnaakhash was torn apart by the Lord with His claws; the blind demon knew nothing of the Lord's Court. ||5||11||21||(Ang 133, SGGS Ji)

Sri Akaal Ustat of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib is a similar bani but both 'Akaal' and 'Kaal' forms of Sri Waheguru have been saluted and praised. (ਅਕਾਲ ਪੁਰਖ ਕੀ ਰਛਾ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ The non-temporal Purusha (All-Pervading Lord) is my Protector. ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਦੀ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ The All-Steel Lord is my Protector. ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ The All-Destroying Lord is my Protector. ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਸਦਾ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ The All-Steel Lord is ever my Protector). This 'Kaal Purakh' has been discussed in detail in the Bani. 'Kaal' cannot have less qualities than that of 'Akaal' for they both are two forms of the same Sri Waheguru. In reality, it is just Him repeatedly manifesting in different temporal forms:

ਸਤਜੁਗਿ ਤੈ ਮਾਣਿਓ ਛਲਿਓ ਬਲਿ ਬਾਵਨ ਭਾਇਓ ॥

In the Golden Age of Sat Yuga, You were pleased to deceive Baal the king, in the form of a dwarf.

ਤ੍ਰੇਤੈ ਤੈ ਮਾਣਿਓ ਰਾਮੁ ਰਘੁਵੰਸੁ ਕਹਾਇਓ ॥

In the Silver Age of Traytaa Yuga, You were called Raam of the Raghu dynasty.

ਦੁਆਪੁਰਿ ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨ ਮੁਰਾਰਿ ਕੰਸੁ ਕਿਰਤਾਰਥੁ ਕੀਓ ॥

In the Brass Age of Dwaapur Yuga, You were Krishna; You killed Mur the demon and saved Kans.

ਉਗ੍ਰਸੈਣ ਕਉ ਰਾਜੁ ਅਭੈ ਭਗਤਹ ਜਨ ਦੀਓ ॥

You blessed Ugrasain with a kingdom, and You blessed Your humble devotees with fearlessness.

ਕਲਿਜੁਗਿ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰੁ ਅੰਗਦੁ ਅਮਰੁ ਕਹਾਇਓ ॥

In the Iron Age, the Dark Age of Kali Yuga, You are known and accepted as Guru Nanak, Guru Angad and Guru Amar Das.

ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਜੁ ਅਬਿਚਲੁ ਅਟਲੁ ਆਦਿ ਪੁਰਖਿ ਫੁਰਮਾਇਓ ॥੭॥

The sovereign rule of the Great Guru is unchanging and permanent, according the Command of the Primal Lord God. ||7||

(Ang 1390,SGGS Ji)

This is how characteristics of 'Kaal Purakh' can also be seen in 'Akaal Purakh'. In broad terms, these two forms of Sri Waheguru are unique in their own way and are also inseparable from each other. Sikh faith has kept the representative Sri Granths of these two forms in two seperate Saroops. It is traditionally said that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji had explicitly forbidden to merge the Bani of these two Sri Granths and when someone like Bhai Mani Singh attempted to join the Bani of two Sri Granths together, the entire Sikh faith had condemned it by calling it a heinous sin. Although Kaal and Akaal are two unique forms, still it is hard for the common man to differentiate between the two. Barring the common man, it is really disappointing when we hear intellectual Sikhs say "Khalsa Akaal Purakh Ki Fauj", that even learned people are also unaware of the concrete uniqueness between 'Kaal' and 'Akaal' forms of Sri Waheguru. There is absolutely no possibility of 'Akaal Purakh Ki Fauj' (The Army of Akaal Purakh), simply because the leader of religious forces and communities can only be some temporal manifestion the 'Kaal Purakh', and not the formless 'Akaal Purakh'. The highly conscious writer of Sri Sarbloh Granth has written it as 'Khalsa Kaal Purakh Ki Fauj' but those who decide to quickly quote it without understanding its meaning have corrupted its original form so much so that its 'Akaal Purakh Ki Fauj' that is heard and read everywhere. Due to ignorance of the philosophy behind this, even scholars can be seen committing the sin of corrupting the original verse.

End of Part 1

To be Continued...

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veer jee,

dint understand the article properly. Can u use simpler language and explain things in short of whats the difference between kaal purakh and akaal purakh.

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Wjkk Wjkf veerjeo,

Sorry for the pinglish! Simply put, Kaal Purakh and Akaal Purakh both have emerged from Sri Waheguru Ji, He is manifested in both of them and despite their unique characteristics, they are still inseperable from each other because their source is the same - Sri Waheguru Ji, The Supreme Being. 'Kaal Purakh' manifests from time to time in physical forms on this earth to guide and support religious causes, and eventually immerses in that One Supreme Being Sri Waheguru after serving the purpose. Read this:

ਸਤਜੁਗਿ ਤੈ ਮਾਣਿਓ ਛਲਿਓ ਬਲਿ ਬਾਵਨ ਭਾਇਓ ॥

In the Golden Age of Sat Yuga, You were pleased to deceive Baal the king, in the form of a dwarf.

ਤ੍ਰੇਤੈ ਤੈ ਮਾਣਿਓ ਰਾਮੁ ਰਘੁਵੰਸੁ ਕਹਾਇਓ ॥

In the Silver Age of Traytaa Yuga, You were called Raam of the Raghu dynasty.

ਦੁਆਪੁਰਿ ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨ ਮੁਰਾਰਿ ਕੰਸੁ ਕਿਰਤਾਰਥੁ ਕੀਓ ॥

In the Brass Age of Dwaapur Yuga, You were Krishna; You killed Mur the demon and saved Kans.

ਉਗ੍ਰਸੈਣ ਕਉ ਰਾਜੁ ਅਭੈ ਭਗਤਹ ਜਨ ਦੀਓ ॥

You blessed Ugrasain with a kingdom, and You blessed Your humble devotees with fearlessness.

ਕਲਿਜੁਗਿ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰੁ ਅੰਗਦੁ ਅਮਰੁ ਕਹਾਇਓ ॥

In the Iron Age, the Dark Age of Kali Yuga, You are known and accepted as Guru Nanak, Guru Angad and Guru Amar Das.

ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਜੁ ਅਬਿਚਲੁ ਅਟਲੁ ਆਦਿ ਪੁਰਖਿ ਫੁਰਮਾਇਓ ॥੭॥

The sovereign rule of the Great Guru is unchanging and permanent, according the Command of the Primal Lord God. ||7||

(Ang 1390,SGGS Ji)

So, in essence there is no fundamental difference between the two..

Sangat ji, please remember this is just the first write up, there are many more planned but if this one don't make any sense or my language is confusing, please let me know and i will accept the Hukam to stop? :|

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Thank you once again for a great post. Veerji, I was wondering if the form of 'Akaal' and 'Kaal' are comparable to 'Nirgun' and 'Sargun' roop's of Waheguru Ji?

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Thank you. I assumed as much. It makes perfect sense, from what I've read, that Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji discusses mostly the Nirgun saroop, as a means of uniting all people with the Universal concept of a formless Waheguru. That, Sri Dasam Granth discusses the Sargun Saroop, notifiable in Chandi Di //, etc with Bhagauti Shabad used as well as bani's such as Shastar Naam Mala.

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Wjkk Wjkf Veerjeo,

Exactly, that is why it is most important for a sikh to have a balanced faith on both these forms. The minute we ignore the Sargun form (Kaal Purakh) of Sri Waheguru Ji, our kaum will no longer be strong enough to fight the enemies.That is exactly what Darshan and other nindaks have been trying to do - they know full well Khalsa in its present form salutes both forms of Sri Waheguru and that it is what keeps them in perfect equilibrium. It is this balance they are hitting at.

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Kaal is a dimension of akal purakh.It is fucntional name of akal purkah.

ਨਮੋ ਕਾਲ ਕਾਲੇ ॥ ਨਮਸਤਸਤੁ ਦਿਆਲੇ ॥

नमो काल काले ॥ नमसतसतु दिआले ॥

Salutation to Thee O Death-destroyer Lord! Salutation to Thee O Beneficent Lord!

ਨਮੋ ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲੇ ॥ ਨਮੋ ਸਰਬ ਪਾਲੇ ॥੨੦॥

नमो सरब काले ॥ नमो सरब पाले ॥२०॥

Salutation to Thee O Annihilator Lord! Salutation to Thee O All-sustainer Lord!20

ਨਮੋ ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲੇ ॥ ਨਮੋ ਸਰਬ ਦਿਆਲੇ ॥

नमो सरब काले ॥ नमो सरब दिआले ॥

Salutation to Thee O All-destroyer Lord! Salutation to Thee O Entirely Generous Lord!

Jaap sahib, dasam Granth

So kal is a dimension of God in the same way as we have others such as Gopal, Dayal, chatubhuj, har in Gurbani.These are kirtham names of God.

ਤਬ ਤਬ ਦੇਹ ਧਰਤ ਅਵਤਾਰਾ ॥

तब तब देह धरत अवतारा ॥

Then the Lord manifests himself in physical form;

ਕਾਲ ਸਭਨ ਕੋ ਪੇਖ ਤਮਾਸਾ ॥

काल सभन को पेख तमासा ॥

The KAL (Destroyer Lord) scans the play of all,

ਅੰਤਹ ਕਾਲ ਕਰਤ ਹੈ ਨਾਸਾ ॥੨॥

अंतह काल करत है नासा ॥२॥

And ultimately destroys all.2.

Chaubis avtar, dasam granth

ਕਾਲ ਰੂਪ ਭਗਵਾਨ ਭਨੈਬੋ ॥

काल रूप भगवान भनैबो ॥

The Lord, Who is known as KAL;

ਤਾ ਮਹਿ ਲੀਨ ਜਗਤਿ ਸਭ ਹ੍ਵੈਬੋ ॥੩੪॥

ता महि लीन जगति सभ ह्वैबो ॥३४॥

All the world will merge in Him.34.

Chaubis avtar, dasam granth

When God takes care of immanent world he has been called kal by guru sahib.He is present in his creation

and regulates this world and ultimately absorbs everything in Him.In simple language Akal is one of his charaterstics or specifications

whereas kal is functional performance.

In bachitra Natak begining there is Eulogy of kal " Sri Kal ji ki ustat"

ਤ੍ਰਿਭੰਗੀ ਛੰਦ ॥

त्रिभंगी छंद ॥


ਸ੍ਰੀ ਕਾਲ ਜੀ ਕੀ ਉਸਤਤਿ ॥

स्री काल जी की उसतति ॥

The Eulogy of the Revered Death (KAL).

ਖਗ ਖੰਡ ਬਿਹੰਡੰ ਖਲ ਦਲ ਖੰਡੰ ਅਤਿ ਰਣ ਮੰਡੰ ਬਰ ਬੰਡੰ ॥

खग खंड बिहंडं खल दल खंडं अति रण मंडं बर बंडं ॥

The sword chops well, chops the forces of fools and this mighty one bedecks and glorifies the battlefield.

ਭੁਜ ਦੰਡ ਅਖੰਡੰ ਤੇਜ ਪ੍ਰਚੰਡੰ ਜੋਤਿ ਅਮੰਡੰ ਭਾਨ ਪ੍ਰਭੰ ॥

भुज दंड अखंडं तेज प्रचंडं जोति अमंडं भान प्रभं ॥

It is the unbreakable staff of the arm, it has the powerful luster and its light even bedims the radiance of the sum.

ਸੁਖ ਸੰਤਾ ਕਰਣੰ ਦੁਰਮਤਿ ਦਰਣੰ ਕਿਲਬਿਖ ਹਰਣੰ ਅਸਿ ਸਰਣੰ ॥

सुख संता करणं दुरमति दरणं किलबिख हरणं असि सरणं ॥

It brings happiness to the saints, mashing the vicious ones, it is the destroyer of sins and I and under its refuge.

ਜੈ ਜੈ ਜਗ ਕਾਰਣ ਸ੍ਰਿਸਟਿ ਉਬਾਰਣ ਮਮ ਪ੍ਰਤਿਪਾਰਣ ਜੈ ਤੇਗੰ ॥੨॥

जै जै जग कारण स्रिसटि उबारण मम प्रतिपारण जै तेगं ॥२॥

Hail, hail to the cause of the world, saviour of the universe, it is my preserver, I hail its victory. 2.

ਭੁਜੰਗ ਪ੍ਰਯਾਤ ਛੰਦ ॥

भुजंग प्रयात छंद ॥


ਸਦਾ ਏਕ ਜੋਤਯੰ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸਰੂਪੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਦੇਵ ਦੇਵੰ ਮਹਾ ਭੂਪ ਭੂਪੰ ॥

सदा एक जोतयं अजूनी सरूपं ॥ महा देव देवं महा भूप भूपं ॥

He, who is ever light-incarnate and birthless entity, Who is the god of chief gods, the king of chief kings.

ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰ ਨਿਤਯੰ ਨਿਰੂਪੰ ਨ੍ਰਿਬਾਣੰ ॥ ਕਲੰ ਕਾਰਣੇਯੰ ਨਮੋ ਖੜਗਪਾਣੰ ॥੩॥

निरंकार नितयं निरूपं न्रिबाणं ॥ कलं कारणेयं नमो खड़गपाणं ॥३॥

Who is Formless, Eternal, Amorphous and Ultimate Bliss. Who is the Cause of all the Powers, I salute the wielder of the Sword.3.

ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰ ਨ੍ਰਿਬਿਕਾਰ ਨਿਤਯੰ ਨਿਰਾਲੰ ॥ ਨ ਬ੍ਰਿਧੰ ਬਿਸੇਖੰ ਨ ਤਰੁਨੰ ਨ ਬਾਲੰ ॥

निरंकार न्रिबिकार नितयं निरालं ॥ न ब्रिधं बिसेखं न तरुनं न बालं ॥

He is Formless, Flawless, eternal and Non-aligned. He is neither distinctively old, nor young nor immature.

ਨ ਰੰਕੰ ਨ ਰਾਯੰ ਨ ਰੂਪੰ ਨ ਰੇਖੰ ॥ ਨ ਰੰਗੰ ਨ ਰਾਗੰ ਅਪਾਰੰ ਅਭੇਖੰ ॥੪॥

न रंकं न रायं न रूपं न रेखं ॥ न रंगं न रागं अपारं अभेखं ॥४॥

He is neither poor. nor rich; He is Formless and Markless. He is Colourless, Non-attached, Limitless and Guiseless.4.

ਨ ਰੂਪੰ ਨ ਰੇਖੰ ਨ ਰੰਗੰ ਨ ਰਾਗੰ ॥ ਨ ਨਾਮੰ ਨ ਠਾਮੰ ਮਹਾ ਜੋਤਿ ਜਾਗੰ ॥

न रूपं न रेखं न रंगं न रागं ॥ न नामं न ठामं महा जोति जागं ॥

He is Formless, Signless, Colourless and Non-attached. He is Nameless, Placeless; and a Radiating Great Effulgence.

ਨ ਦ੍ਵੈਖੰ ਨ ਭੇਖੰ ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰ ਨਿਤਯੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਜੋਗ ਜੋਗੰ ਸੁ ਪਰਮੰ ਪਵਿਤ੍ਰਯੰ॥੫॥

न द्वैखं न भेखं निरंकार नितयं ॥ महा जोग जोगं सु परमं पवित्रयं॥५॥

He is Blemishless, Guiseless, Formless and Eternal. He is a Superb Practising Yogi and a Supremely Holy Entity.5.

ਅਜੇਯੰ ਅਭੇਯੰ ਅਨਾਮੰ ਅਠਾਮੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਜੋਗ ਜੋਗੰ ਮਹਾ ਕਾਮ ਕਾਮੰ ॥

अजेयं अभेयं अनामं अठामं ॥ महा जोग जोगं महा काम कामं ॥

He is unconquerable, Indistinguishable, Nameless and Placeless. He is a Superb Practicing Yogi, He is the Supreme Ravisher.

ਅਲੇਖੰ ਅਭੇਖੰ ਅਨੀਲੰ ਅਨਾਦੰ ॥ ਪਰੇਯੰ ਪਵਿਤ੍ਰੰ ਸਦਾ ਨ੍ਰਿਬਿਖਾਦੰ ॥੬॥

अलेखं अभेखं अनीलं अनादं ॥ परेयं पवित्रं सदा न्रिबिखादं ॥६॥

He is Accountless, Garbless, Stainless and without Beginning. He is in the Yond, Immaculate and ever without Contention.6.

ਸੁਆਦੰ ਅਨਾਦੰ ਅਨੀਲੰ ਅਨੰਤੰ॥ ਅਦ੍ਵੈਖੰ ਅਭੇਖੰ ਮਹੇਸੰ ਮਹੰਤੰ ॥

सुआदं अनादं अनीलं अनंतं॥ अद्वैखं अभेखं महेसं महंतं ॥

He is the Primal, Orignless, Stainless and Endless. He is Blemishless, Guiseless, Master of the earth and the destroyer of Pride.

ਨ ਰੋਖੰ ਨ ਸੋਖੰ ਨ ਦ੍ਰੋਹੰ ਨ ਮੋਹੰ ॥ ਨ ਕਾਮੰ ਨ ਕ੍ਰੋਧੰ ਅਜੋਨੀ ਅਜੋਹੰ ॥੭॥

न रोखं न सोखं न द्रोहं न मोहं ॥ न कामं न क्रोधं अजोनी अजोहं ॥७॥

He is Ireless, Ever fresh, Deceitless and Non-attached. He is Lustless, Angerless, Birthless and Sightless.7.

ਪਰੇਅੰ ਪਵਿਤ੍ਰੰ ਪੁਨੀਤੰ ਪੁਰਾਣੰ ॥ ਅਜੇਯੰ ਅਭੇਯੰ ਭਵਿਖਯੰ ਭਵਾਣੰ ॥

परेअं पवित्रं पुनीतं पुराणं ॥ अजेयं अभेयं भविखयं भवाणं ॥

He is in the Yond, Immaculate, Most Holy and Ancient. He is Unconquerable, Indistinguishable, Will be in future and is always Present.

ਨ ਰੋਗੰ ਨ ਸੋਗੰ ਸੁ ਨਿਤਯੰ ਨਵੀਨੰ ॥ ਅਜਾਯੰ ਸਹਾਯੰ ਪਰਮੰ ਪ੍ਰਬੀਨੰ ॥੮॥

न रोगं न सोगं सु नितयं नवीनं ॥ अजायं सहायं परमं प्रबीनं ॥८॥

He is without ailment and sorrow and is ever new. He is Birthless, He is the Supporter and is Supremely dexterous.8.

ਸੁ ਭੂਤੰ ਭਵਿਖਯੰ ਭਵਾਨੰ ਭਵੇਯੰ ॥ ਨਮੋ ਨ੍ਰਿਬਿਕਾਰੰ ਨਮੋ ਨ੍ਰਿਜੁਰੇਅੰ ॥

सु भूतं भविखयं भवानं भवेयं ॥ नमो न्रिबिकारं नमो न्रिजुरेअं ॥

He Pervades in the Past, Future and Present. I Salute Him, Who is without vices and without ailments.

ਨਮੋ ਦੇਵ ਦੇਵੰ ਨਮੋ ਰਾਜ ਰਾਜੰ ॥ ਨਿਰਾਲੰਬ ਨਿਤਯੰ ਸੁ ਰਾਜਾਧਿਰਾਜੰ ॥੯॥

नमो देव देवं नमो राज राजं ॥ निराल्मब नितयं सु राजाधिराजं ॥९॥

I Salute Him, Who is the god of gods and king of kings. He is Supportless, Eternal and Greatest of Emperors. 9

ਅਲੇਖੰ ਅਭੇਖੰ ਅਭੂਤੰ ਅਦ੍ਵੈਖੰ ॥ ਨ ਰਾਗੰ ਨ ਰੰਗੰ ਨ ਰੂਪੰ ਨ ਰੇਖੰ ॥

अलेखं अभेखं अभूतं अद्वैखं ॥ न रागं न रंगं न रूपं न रेखं ॥

He is Accountless, Guiseless, Elementless and Blemishless. He is without attachment, colour, form and mark.

ਮਹਾ ਦੇਵ ਦੇਵੰ ਮਹਾ ਜੋਗ ਜੋਗੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਕਾਮ ਕਾਮੰ ਮਹਾ ਭੋਗ ਭੋਗੰ ॥੧੦॥

महा देव देवं महा जोग जोगं ॥ महा काम कामं महा भोग भोगं ॥१०॥

He is the Greatest of gods and the Supreme Yogi. He is the Greatest of the rapturous and the greatest of the Ravishing.10.

ਕਹੂੰ ਰਾਜਸੰ ਤਾਮਸੰ ਸਾਤਕੇਯੰ ॥ ਕਹੂੰ ਨਾਰ ਕੇ ਰੂਪ ਧਾਰੇ ਨਰੇਯੰ॥

कहूं राजसं तामसं सातकेयं ॥ कहूं नार के रूप धारे नरेयं॥

Somewhere He bears the quality of rajas (activity), somewhere tamas (morbidity) and somewhere sattva (rhythm). Somewhere He takes the form of a woman and somewhere man.

ਕਹੂੰ ਦੇਵੀਅੰ ਦੇਵਤੰ ਦਈਤ ਰੂਪੰ ॥ ਕਹੂੰ ਰੂਪ ਅਨੇਕ ਧਾਰੇ ਅਨੂਪੰ ॥੧੧॥

कहूं देवीअं देवतं दईत रूपं ॥ कहूं रूप अनेक धारे अनूपं ॥११॥

Somewhere He manifests Himself as a goddess, god and demon. Somewhere He appears in several unique forms.11.

ਕਹੂੰ ਫੂਲ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਕੈ ਭਲੇ ਰਾਜ ਫੂਲੇ ॥ ਕਹੂੰ ਭਵਰ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਕੈ ਭਲੀ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਭੂਲੇ ॥

कहूं फूल ह्वै कै भले राज फूले ॥ कहूं भवर ह्वै कै भली भांति भूले ॥

Somewhere He, taking the form of a flower, is rightly puffed up. Somewhere becoming a black bee, seems inebriated (for the flower).

ਕਹੂੰ ਪਉਨ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਕੈ ਬਹੇ ਬੇਗਿ ਐਸੇ ॥ ਕਹੇ ਮੋ ਨ ਆਵੈ ਕਥੋਂ ਤਾਹਿ ਕੈਸੇ ॥੧੨॥

कहूं पउन ह्वै कै बहे बेगि ऐसे ॥ कहे मो न आवै कथों ताहि कैसे ॥१२॥

Somewhere becoming the wind, moves with such speed, which is indescribable, how can I elucidate it? 12.

ਕਹੂੰ ਨਾਦ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਕੈ ਭਲੀ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਬਾਜੇ ॥ ਕਹੂੰ ਪਾਰਧੀ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਕੈ ਧਰੇ ਬਾਨ ਰਾਜੇ ॥

कहूं नाद ह्वै कै भली भांति बाजे ॥ कहूं पारधी ह्वै कै धरे बान राजे ॥

Somewhere He become a musical instrument, which is played appropriately. Somewhere He becomes a hunter who looks glorious with His arrow (in His bow).

ਕਹੂੰ ਮ੍ਰਿਗ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਕੈ ਭਲੀ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਮੋਹੇ ॥ ਕਹੂੰ ਕਾਮੁਕੀ ਜਿਉ ਧਰੇ ਰੂਪ ਸੋਹੇ ॥੧੩॥

कहूं म्रिग ह्वै कै भली भांति मोहे ॥ कहूं कामुकी जिउ धरे रूप सोहे ॥१३॥

Somewhere He becomes a deer and allures exquisitely. Somewhere He manifests Himself as Cupid`s wife, with impressive beauty.13.

ਨਹੀਂ ਜਾਨ ਜਾਈ ਕਛੂ ਰੂਪ ਰੇਖੰ ॥ ਕਹਾਂ ਬਾਸ ਤਾ ਕੋ ਫਿਰੈ ਕਉਨ ਭੇਖੰ ॥

नहीं जान जाई कछू रूप रेखं ॥ कहां बास ता को फिरै कउन भेखं ॥

His Form and Mark cannot be comprehended. Where doth He live and what guise doth He adopt?

ਕਹਾ ਨਾਮ ਤਾ ਕੋ ਕਹਾ ਕੈ ਕਹਾਵੈ ॥ ਕਹਾ ਮੈ ਬਖਾਨੋ ਕਹੇ ਮੋ ਨ ਆਵੈ ॥੧੪॥

कहा नाम ता को कहा कै कहावै ॥ कहा मै बखानो कहे मो न आवै ॥१४॥

What is His Name and how he is called? How can I describle? He is Indescribable.14.

ਨ ਤਾ ਕੋ ਕੋਈ ਤਾਤ ਮਾਤੰ ਨ ਭਾਯੰ ॥ ਨ ਪੁਤ੍ਰੰ ਨ ਪੌਤ੍ਰੰ ਨ ਦਾਯਾ ਨ ਦਾਯੰ ॥

न ता को कोई तात मातं न भायं ॥ न पुत्रं न पौत्रं न दाया न दायं ॥

He hath no father, mother and brother. He hath no son, no grandson and no male and female nurses.

ਨ ਨੇਹੰ ਨ ਗੇਹੰ ਨ ਸੈਨੰ ਨ ਸਾਥੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਰਾਜ ਰਾਜੰ ਮਹਾ ਨਾਥ ਨਾਥੰ ॥੧੫॥

न नेहं न गेहं न सैनं न साथं ॥ महा राज राजं महा नाथ नाथं ॥१५॥

He hath no attachment, no home, no army and no companion. He is the Great King of kings and Great Lord of lords.15.

ਪਰਮੰ ਪੁਰਾਨੰ ਪਵਿਤ੍ਰੰ ਪਰੇਯੰ ॥ ਅਨਾਦੰ ਅਨੀਲੰ ਅਸੰਭੰ ਅਜੇਯੰ ॥

परमं पुरानं पवित्रं परेयं ॥ अनादं अनीलं अस्मभं अजेयं ॥

He is Supreme, Ancient, Immaculate and in the Yond. He is beginningless. Stainless, Non-existent and Unconquerable.

ਅਭੇਦੰ ਅਛੇਦੰ ਪਵਿਤ੍ਰੰ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਥੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਦੀਨ ਦੀਨੰ ਮਹਾ ਨਾਥ ਨਾਥੰ ॥੧੬॥

अभेदं अछेदं पवित्रं प्रमाथं ॥ महा दीन दीनं महा नाथ नाथं ॥१६॥

He is Indistinguishable, Indestructible, Holy and Paramount. He is the Most Humble of the meek and Great Lord of lords.16.

ਅਦਾਗੰ ਅਦਗੰ ਅਲੇਖੰ ਅਭੇਖੰ ॥ ਅਨੰਤੰ ਅਨੀਲੰ ਅਰੂਪੰ ਅਦ੍ਵੈਖੰ ॥

अदागं अदगं अलेखं अभेखं ॥ अनंतं अनीलं अरूपं अद्वैखं ॥

He is Stainless, Imperishable, Accountless and Guiseless. He is Limitless, Blemishless, Formless and Maliceless.

ਮਹਾ ਤੇਜ ਤੇਜੰ ਮਹਾ ਜ੍ਵਾਲ ਜ੍ਵਾਲੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਮੰਤ੍ਰ ਮੰਤ੍ਰੰ ਮਹਾ ਕਾਲ ਕਾਲੰ ॥੧੭॥

महा तेज तेजं महा ज्वाल ज्वालं ॥ महा मंत्र मंत्रं महा काल कालं ॥१७॥

He is the Most Effulgent of all lights and Supreme Conflagration of all fires. He is the Supreme Spell of all incantations and Supreme embodiment of Death over all such powers.17.

ਕਰੰ ਬਾਮ ਚਾਪਿਯੰ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਣੰ ਕਰਾਲੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਤੇਜ ਤੇਜੰ ਬਿਰਾਜੈ ਬਿਸਾਲੰ ॥

करं बाम चापियं क्रिपाणं करालं ॥ महा तेज तेजं बिराजै बिसालं ॥

He holds the bow in His left hand and the terrible sword (in the right). He is the Supreme Effulgence of all lights and sits in His Great Glory.

ਮਹਾਂ ਦਾੜ੍ਹ ਦਾੜ੍ਹੰ ਸੁ ਸੋਹੰ ਅਪਾਰੰ ॥ ਜਿਨੈ ਚਰਬੀਯੰ ਜੀਵ ਜਗਯੰ ਹਜਾਰੰ ॥੧੮॥

महां दाड़्ह दाड़्हं सु सोहं अपारं ॥ जिनै चरबीयं जीव जगयं हजारं ॥१८॥

He, of Infinite Splendour, is the masher of of the boar-incarnation with great grinder tooth. He crushed and devoured thousands of the creatures of the world.18.

ਡਮਾਡੰਮ ਡਉਰੂ ਸਿਤਾਸੇਤ ਛਤ੍ਰੰ ॥ ਹਾਹਾ ਹੂਹੂ ਹਾਸੰ ਝਮਾਝੱਮ ਅਤ੍ਰੰ ॥

डमाडम डउरू सितासेत छत्रं ॥ हाहा हूहू हासं झमाझ्म अत्रं ॥

The tabor (in the hand of Great Death (KAL) resounds and the black and white canopy swings. Loud laughter emanates from his mouth and the weapons (in his hands) glisten.

ਮਹਾ ਘੋਰ ਸਬਦੰ ਬਜੇ ਸੰਖ ਐਸੰ ॥ ਪ੍ਰਲੈ ਕਾਲ ਕੇ ਕਾਲ ਕੀ ਜ੍ਵਾਲ ਜੈਸੇ ॥੧੯॥

महा घोर सबदं बजे संख ऐसं ॥ प्रलै काल के काल की ज्वाल जैसे ॥१९॥

His conch produces such a terrible sound that appears like the blazing fire of the Death on doomsday.19.

Bachitra natak, Dasam Granth

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" but not that of sturdy Khalsa kaum, because only 'Kaal Purakh' can be the only source of inspiration for it. "

I would be careful about saying the above and splitting Akaal and Kaal, - it is dualistic thinking...very useful for taking things apart to examine them as has been done very well by Veerji, but after the analysis - the taking apart, we have to synthesise again...bring it together again...so while Khalsa kaum, panth, is inspired by Kaal roop, it is energised by the Akaal energy behind it. There is nirgun in every sargun...never separate. Kaal without akaal is dead. but I think we are making good progress in analysis. Thank you again.

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Guest shastr

pjs bhaji, hows the sri dasam granth steek coming along? have you started working on it yet?

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Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa

Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh Guru Roop Sangat Jeo,

With Sri Guruji's kirpa, here is second article in the on-going series of articles on the conecept of 'Kaal Purakh' in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji. Part I is available here. A big thanks to Bhai Gurinder Singh Mann Ji for providing reference materials! Ok, please read on :)

෴ Concept of Kaal Purakh in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji (part 2) ෴

In the banis of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji, 'Kaal Purakh' has been referred to by various names: ਕਾਲ, ਕਲਿ, ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ, ਸਤਿ ਕਾਲ, ਮਹਾਕਾਲ, etc. For instance:

ਕਾਲ ਸਬਨ ਕੋ ਪੇਖਿ ਤਮਾਸਾ ॥ ਅੰਤਹ ਕਾਲ ਕਰਤ ਹੈ ਨਾਸਾ ॥

The KAL (Destroyer Lord) scans the play of all, And ultimately destroys all.2.(Chaubees Avtar 2)

ਜੋ ਕਲਿ (ਨਾਇਕ) ਕੋ ਇਕ ਬਾਰ ਧਿਐ ਹੈ ॥ ਤਾ ਕੇ ਕਾਲ ਨਿਕਟਿ ਨਹਿ ਐਹੈ ॥

Those who meditate even on the Supreme Destroyer, the death cannot approach them;(Kabeyo Baach Chaupai 22)

ਆਪ ਰਚੇ ਆਪੇ ਕਲ ਘਾਏ ॥ ਅਵਰਨ ਕੈ ਦੈ ਮੂੰਡਿ ਹਤਾਏ ॥

He creates Himself and destroys Himself; But He imposes the responsibility on the head of others;(Chaubees Avtar 6)

ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਤਬ ਭਏ ਦਇਆਲਾ ॥ ਲੋਹ ਰਛ ਹਮ ਕੋ ਸਬ ਕਾਲਾ ॥

My Lord, the Destroyer of all, then became Benevolent, At all times, I gave the Protection of at that steel-incarnated Lord.8.(Bachittar Natak 14/8)

ਮਹਾ ਤੇਜ ਤੇਜੰ ਮਹਾ ਜ੍ਵਾਲ ਜ੍ਵਾਲੰ ॥ ਮਹਾ ਤੰਤ੍ਰ ਮੰਤ੍ਰ ਮਹਾ ਕਾਲ ਕਾਲੰ ॥

He is the Most Effulgent of all lights and Supreme Conflagration of all fires. He is the Supreme Spell of all incantations and Supreme embodiment of Death over all such powers.17(Bachittar Natak 1/17)

The disquisition of spirituality in the compositions of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji is par excellence. Every concept in this Sri Granth is so immensely deep that they appear impossible to grasp and fully comprehend by human intellect. These thoughts have emerged from divine contemplation and are so methodical that other literary techniques appear insignificant in comparison. No thought or concept is left unclear or incomplete; every idea is wrapped in many layers of religious texts of India. The dilemma is it is very hard to understand anything from this Sri Granth without any divine grace. Another perplexing trait comes forth when analysing the Bani of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji - The Shabads that are written in Raags by Sri Gururji eulogise 'Akaal Purakh' only, who is the principle form of eulogy in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. That Sri Waheguru, who appears as 'Kaal Purakh' in Raag-less banis like 'Sri Jaap Sahib', becomes 'Supreme Being' in Raag-based shabads. There is only one shabad that has 'ਕੇਵਲ ਕਾਲ ਈ ਕਰਤਾਰ' in the beginning, that too is probably written with the sole purpose of making sure that the 'Kaal' as mentioned in other Banis of Sri Dasam Granth does not appear any different to the 'Supreme Being' to the reader. At other places, 'Kaal' has been used for Shiv and at yet other places, it has been used for death. In these Shabads, the form of Sri Waheguru is the same as that of 'Supreme Being' (Akaal Purakh) of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji:

ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ ਪਰਮ ਪੁਰਖ ਪਗਿ ਲਾਗੋ ॥

O Man ! fall at the feet of the supreme Purusha,(Ramkali Patsahi 10)

ਪਰਮ ਪੁਰੁਖ ਪਰਮੇਸਰ ਸੁਆਮੀ ਪਵਨ ਪਉਨ ਅਹਾਰੀ ॥

O Supreme Purusha! Supreme Ishwara ! Master of all ! Holiest Divinity ! living on air;(Sorath Patsahi 10)

ਤਬ ਹੀ ਆਤਮ ਤਤ ਕੋ ਦਰਸੈ ਪਰਮ ਪੁਰੁਖ ਕਹ ਪਾਵੈ ॥

Then you will visualize the supreme essence and realise the supreme Purusha.3.1. (Ramkali Patsahi 10)

In 'Chaubis Avtar' Bani, a hint is given that the supreme form of that Creator is the one in which all Avtars, Devtas and Demons get merged. Since 'Kaal Purakh' exhibits favoritism towards religious forces, that's why a casual glance on this form might give the impression of partiality, unlike 'Akaal Purakh' who is impartial. The non-dualistic Sri Waheguru takes on the form of 'Kaal Purakh' in the universe, manifests Himself in different Avtar forms, and ultimately becomes One again by immersing in the Supreme Being. Sri Guruji says in this regard:

ਪਰਮ ਰੂਪ ਜੋ ਏਕ ਕਹਾਯੋ ॥ ਅੰਤਿ ਸਭੋ ਤਿਹ ਮਧਿ ਮਿਲਾਯੋ ॥੩੩॥

But whatever is the Supreme form of the Lord; Ultimately all merged in Him.33. (Chaubis Avtar 33)

The 'Kaal Purakh' of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji is Sri Waheguru Himself, and not some Rudra-Shiv like Devta. It is not His permanent form, being the ruler of Kaal (time), he manifests in physical form for intervention in its actions, and remains immersed in the Supreme Being in the absence of time. 'Kaal Purakh' is that form of Sri Waheguru in which the entire universe will eventually get immersed. He has divided his One form into countless forms and is omnipresent in all of them.

ਕਾਲ ਰੂਪ ਭਗਵਾਨ ਭਨੈਬੋ ॥ ਤਾ ਮਹਿ ਲੀਨ ਜਗਤਿ ਸਭ ਹ੍ਵੈਬੋ ॥੩੪॥

The Lord, Who is known as KAL; All the world will merge in Him.34

ਏਕਹਿ ਆਪ ਸਭਨ ਮੋ ਬਯਾਪਾ ॥ ਸਭ ਕੋਈ ਭਿੰਨ ਭਿੰਨ ਕਰ ਥਾਪਾ ॥੩੫॥

Only one lord pervades all; But appears to everyone as distinctly separate accofding to his discernment.35..(Chaubis Avtar 35)

The Lord above is no different from the formless Sri Waheguru of Dhan Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. The writer of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji has made it absolutely clear in 'Nehkalanki Avtar' that 'Kaal' Lord is also 'Akaal' because both have common source of existence. Thus, 'Kaal' is 'Akaal' and likewise, 'Akaal' is 'Kaal':

ਅਕਾਲ ਕਾਲ ਕੀ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾ ਬਨਾਇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਰਾਖਿ ਹੈ ॥

He composed this granth by the Grace of the Lord (Kaal, Akaal); (Brahmavtar 2/3)

'Chaubis Avtar' contains tales glorifying marvels performed by temporal manifestations of 'Kaal Purakh' in this world, that is why the Lord has been called 'Kaal' right from the beginning of this composition. The reason for this is made explicitly clear by the writer of Sri Dasam Granth - that because you are the Destroyer of this universe, people have named you 'Kaal':

ਅੰਤ ਕਰਤ ਸਭ ਜਗ ਕੋ ਕਾਲਾ ॥ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਾਲ ਤਾ ਤੇ ਜਗ ਡਾਲਾ ॥

At time Thou destroyest the universe; Therefore the world hath named you KAL (the Destroyer Lord);(Chaubis Avtar 9)

The word 'Kaal' in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji has been used for God, Time, Death, Yama, etc. but the central idea is common in all these meanings. God is the creator, controller and destroyer of time, that is why He has been named 'Kaal'. He remains established in time, and destroys all lifeforms within the boundaries of their specified lifespan. Death is inevitable at the prefixed time, thus there is an inseperable association between death and time. Death and Yama cannot be called different from each other. Therefore, Kaal, Death, Yama and Time are none other the creator Sri Waheguru Ji Himself. These various uses of the word 'Kaal' are exemplified by the following Tukks:

1. 'Kaal' used for Sri Waheguru:

ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਹੈ ਪਿਤਾ ਅਪਾਰਾ ॥ ਦੇਬਿ ਕਾਲਿਕਾ ਮਾਤ ਹਮਾਰਾ ॥

He, my Lord is Father and Destroyer of all, the goddess Kalika* is my mother. (Bachittar Natak 14/5)

ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਕਰਣਾ ਤਬ ਭਰੇ ॥ ਸੇਵਕ ਜਾਨ ਦਯਾ ਰਸ ਢਰੇ ॥

Then my Lord, Destroyer of all, was filled with kindness and considering me as His servant, He was gracefully pleased. (Bachittar Natak 14/7)

ਜਵਨ ਕਾਲ ਜੋਗੀ ਸ਼ਿਵ ਕੀਯੋ ॥ ਬੇਦ ਰਾਜ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਜੂ ਥੀਯੋ ॥ ਜਵਨ ਕਾਲ ਸਭ ਲੋਕ ਸਵਾਰਾ ॥ ਨਮਸ਼ਕਾਰ ਹੈ ਤਾਹਿ ਹਮਾਰਾ ॥੩੮੪॥

The Temporal Lord, who created Shiva, the Yogi; who created Brahma, the Master of the Vedas; The Temporal Lord who fashioned the entire world; I salute the same Lord.384. (Kabyo Baach Chaupai 8)

[* Kalika does not refer to tangible idol of any devi. On the contrary, it is the omnipresent force of the Creator in the universe. Hindu religion has termed this force as 'Nature' (ਪ੍ਰਕ੍ਰਿਤੀ). In 'Chaubis Avtar', there is description of two different elements in this temporal universe - One is the 'Purakh' and other is the Nature. ਤਾ ਤੇ ਜਗਤ ਭਯੋ ਬਿਸਥਾਰਾ ॥ ਪੁਰਖ ਪ੍ਰਕ੍ਰਿਤ ਜਬ ਦੁਹੂ ਬਿਚਾਰਾ ॥੩੦॥ There was expansion of the whole world, From the union of Purusha and Prakriti. (Chaubis Avtar, 30).]

2. 'Kaal' used for Time:

ਕਾਲ ਪਾਇ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਬਪੁ ਧਰਾ ॥ ਕਾਲ ਪਾਇ ਸ਼ਿਵਜੂ ਅਵਤਰਾ ॥ ਕਾਲ ਪਾਇ ਕਰਿ ਬਿਸ਼ਨ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ਾ ॥ ਸਕਲ ਕਾਲ ਕਾ ਕੀਯਾ ਤਮਾਸ਼ਾ ॥੩੮੩॥

In due time Brahma appeared in physical form; in due time Shiva incarnated; In due time Vishnu manifested himself; all this is the play of the Temporal Lord. (Kabyo Baach Chaupai 7).

ਰੱਛਾ ਹੋਇ ਤਾਹਿ ਸਭ ਕਾਲਾ ॥ ਦੁਸ਼ਟ ਅਰਿਸ਼ਟ ਟਰੇ ਤਤਕਾਲਾ ॥੩੯੮॥

They remain protected at all times; their enemies and troubles come to and end instantly. (Kabyo Baach Chaupai 22)

3. 'Kaal' used for Yama:

ਏਕ ਬਾਰ ਜਿਨ ਤੁਮੈਂ ਸੰਭਾਰਾ ॥ਕਾਲ ਫਾਸ ਤੇ ਤਾਹਿ ਉਬਾਰਾ ॥

He, who remembered Thee even once, Thou didst protect him from the noose of death;(Kabyo Baach Chaupai 24).

4. 'Kaal' used for Death:

ਬਹੁਤੀ ਸਿਰੀ ਵਿਹਾਈਆਂ ਘੜੀਆਂ ਕਾਲ ਕੀਆਂ ॥

The last moments of death came over the heads of many fighters.(Vaar Durga Ki 43).

Any intellectual with sense of reasoning will be able to appreciate the fact that the writer of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji has immaculate command over every thought and the vocabulary used, that every word and every sentence has been uttered with utmost precision and care. When narrating creation of the universe in 'RudraAvtar' for instance, the writer of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji has referred to the Supreme Power as 'Aad Purakh' instead of 'Kaal Purakh'. The 'Aad Purakh', the Primal Being, has created Good and Evil and He is the one who has created tensions between the two. Just like the Akal Purakh of Dhan Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji in the Tukk - ਜਿਨਿ ਉਪਾਈ ਰੰਗਿ ਰਵਾਈ ਬੈਠਾ ਵੇਖੈ ਵਖਿ ਇਕੇਲਾ ॥ The One who created, and attached the mortals to pleasures, sits alone, and watches this., 'Aad Purakh' also immensely enjoys this worldly play but if religious forces go feeble, He intervenes in this play to restore equilibrium by manifesting in Avtar form; this is how 'Aad Purakh' of 'RudraAvtar' takes on the form of 'Kaal Purakh'. Similarly, in 'Bisan Avtar', when earth becomes fed up with widespread evil, 'Kaal Purakh' instead of 'Aad Purakh' commands Vishnu to go destroy evil on earth because the ever-merciful Lord cannot see His devoteees in a sad state. Avtars like Vishnu and Rudra perform their divine duties and ultimately merge back in 'Kaal Purakh' again.

ਆਦਿ ਪੁਰਖ ਜਬ ਆਪ ਸੰਭਾਰਾ ॥ ਆਪ ਰੂਪ ਮੈ ਆਪਿ ਨਿਹਾਰਾ ॥ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ ਕਹ ਇਕਦਾ ਕਹਾ ॥ ਭੂਮਿ ਅਕਾਸ਼ ਸਕਲ ਬਨਿ ਰਹਾ ॥੧੦੮॥੩੩੫॥

When Primal Purusha, the Lord reflected within Himself and visualized his own form himself, He uttered the world Oankaar, because of which the earth, the sky and the whole world was created..(Rudra -Paras 335).

ਦਾਹਨ ਦਿਸ ਤੇ ਸਤਿ ਉਪਜਾਵਾ ॥ ਬਾਮ ਪਰਸ ਤੇ ਝੂਠ ਬਨਾਵਾ ॥ ਉਪਜਤ ਹੀ ਉਠਿ ਜੁਝੇ ਜੁਝਾਰਾ ॥ ਤਬ ਤੇ ਕਰਤ ਜਗਤ ਮੈ ਰਾਰਾ ॥੧੦੯॥੩੩੬॥

He created truth from the right side and made falsehood on the felt; on taking birth both these warriors began to fight and since that time, they are opposing each other in the world.109.336.(Rudra -Paras 335).


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Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa

Waheguru Ji Ki fateh Guru Roop Sangat Jeo,

With Sri Guruji Maharaj's infinite kirpa here is the final article in this series on the Concept of Kaal Purakh in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji. I sincerely hope that some of the confusing concepts regarding the nature of 'Kaal Purakh' would become more clear and in doing so, we can get closer to understanding the Sri Bani of our Dasam Guru Sahib Ji.

Part 1 : here

Part 2 : here

Thanks for reading,


Prabhjot Singh

꘏ Concept of Kaal Purakh in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji [final]

Although 'Kaal Purakh' is the creator of both Devtas and Demons, He always supports righteous forces as only divine powers are going to merge in Him in the end while evil is going to end with the destruction of the physical world. The tukk 'Khel Sakochai To Nanak Aekai' from Dhan Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Maharaj verifies this concept. Since Oneness is His everlasting characteristic, the evil, the darkness will be surely destroyed. This is the reason why He supports good virtues and helps pious people:

ਏਕਹਿ ਆਪ ਸਭਨ ਮੋ ਬਯਾਪਾ ॥ ਸਭ ਕੋਈ ਭਿੰਨ ਭਿੰਨ ਕਰ ਥਾਪਾ ॥੩੫॥

At all times, Lord, Destroyer of all, protects me. That All-Pervading Lord is my Protector like Steel.(Bachittar Natak 14/9)

ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਸਭ ਸਾਧ ਉਬਾਰੇ ॥ ਦੁਖੁ ਦੈ ਕੈ ਦੋਖੀ ਸਭ ਮਾਰੇ ॥

At all times, the Lord protected all the saints and hath killed all the malicious persons, subjecting them to great agony.(Bachittar Natak 14/1)

'Kaal Purakh' of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji infuses incredible zeal for righetous warfare in valiant defenders of the faith. An person without weapons on him cannot call himself 'Soorbeer'. That is why, 'Kaal Purakh' has been portrayed as a weapon-wielding Sarbloh Soorbeer, a form that reassures His followers of security under His sanctuary:

ਅਕਾਲ ਪੁਰਖ ਕੀ ਰਛਾ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਦੀ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਸਦਾ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥

The non-temporal Purusha (All-Pervading Lord) is my Protector. The All-Steel Lord is my Protector. The All-Destroying Lord is my Protector. The All-Steel Lord is ever my Protector. (Akaal Ustat 1)

ਢਲਾ ਢੁਕ ਢਾਲੰ ॥ ਝਮੀ ਤੇਗ ਕਾਲੰ ॥ ਕਟਾ ਕਾਟ ਬਾਹੈਂ ॥ ਉਭੈ ਜੀਤ ਚਾਹੈਂ ॥੪੬॥_

The noises of the knocking on the shields and the blows of the swords are being heard, the daggers are being struck with clattering sound, and both the side are desirous of their victory. (Chaubis Avtar, 26)

ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਣ ਪਾਣ ਧਾਰੀਅੰ ॥ ਕਰੋਰ ਪਾਪ ਟਾਰੀਅੰ ॥ ਗਦਾ ਗ੍ਰਿਸਟ ਪਾਣਿਅੰ ॥ ਕਮਾਣ ਬਾਣ ਤਾਣਿਅੰ ॥੪੭॥...

He, who wields the sword in his hand, he is the remover of millions of sins. He hath caught hold of the big mace and hath fitted the arrow in his stretched bow...

ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਣ ਪਾਣ ਰਾਜਈ ॥ ਬਿਲੋਕ ਪਾਪ ਭਾਜਈ ॥੫੦॥...

The sword appears impressive in his hand, seeing which the sins run away...

ਕਮਾਣ ਬਾਣ ਧਾਰਹੀ ॥ ਅਨੇਕ ਸੱਤ੍ਰੁ ਟਾਰਹੀ ॥੫੧॥

The arrow is fitted in the bow, which causes many enemies to flee away. (Bachittar Natak 47-51)

Despite armed with weapons, His heart is full of compassion. His is emancipator by nature. His heart swells with pity whenever He sees virtuous people in pain:

ਕਰਤ ਪੁਕਾਰ ਧਰਣ ਭਰ ਭਾਰਾ ॥ ਕਾਲ ਪੁਰਖ ਤਬ ਹੋਤ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਰਾ ॥੨॥

Then the earth, pressed under the load of sins, calls for help, and then the destroyer Lord becomes kind. (Bisan Avtar 2)

ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਕਰਣਾ ਤਬ ਭਰੇ ॥ ਸੇਵਕ ਜਾਨ ਦਯਾ ਰਸ ਢਰੇ ॥

Then my Lord, Destroyer of all, was filled with kindness and considering me as His servant, He was gracefully pleased. (Bachittar Natak 14/7)

'Kaal Purakh' Himself is the destroyer of this world. Fights, Wars, etc. are simply His devices to destroy living beings. Even though He helps virtuous people and punishes those who hurt them, still warriors from both sides of the battlefield are killed in accordance with His Hukam, even though blame is levelled on others. He watches over this worldly play and then destroys everyone and everything to wrap up the show. He is the cause of destruction of all forms, but has created such devices to kill that one cannot accuse him of the killings:

ਕਾਲ ਨ ਕੋਊ ਕਰਨ ਸੁਮਾਰਾ ॥ ਬੈਰ ਬਾਦ ਅਹੰਕਾਰ ਪਸਾਰਾ ॥

None could remember KAL and there was only extension of enmity, strife ego. (Bachittar Natak 2/36)

ਕਾਲ ਪੁਰਖ ਤਬ ਹੋਤ ਸਹਾਈ ॥ ਦੁਹੂੰਅਨਿ ਹਨਤ ਕ੍ਰੋਧ ਉਪਜਾਈ ॥੬॥

The Immanent Lord then helped Vishnu and in great fury, he destroyed both the demons.6. (Bisan Avtar 6)

ਉਠੇ ਬੀਰ ਜੇਤੇ ਤਿਤੇ ਕਾਲ ਕੂਟੇ ॥ ਪਰੇ ਚਰਮ ਬਰਮੰ ਕਹੂੰ ਗਾਤ ਟੂਟੇ ॥

All the warriors who arose, were destroyed by Kal. Somewhere their shields, armour and wounded bodies are lying scattered;(Chandi Charitar 2/88)

ਅੰਤ ਕਰਤ ਸਭ ਜਗ ਕੋ ਕਾਲਾ ॥ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਾਲ ਤਾ ਤੇ ਜਗ ਡਾਲਾ ॥

At time Thou destroyest the universe;Therefore the world hath named you KAL (the Destroyer Lord);(Chaubis Avtar 9)

ਕਾਲ ਸਭਨ ਕੋ ਪੇਖ ਤਮਾਸਾ ॥ ਅੰਤਹ ਕਾਲ ਕਰਤ ਹੈ ਨਾਸਾ ॥੨॥

The KAL (Destroyer Lord) scans the play of all, And ultimately destroys all. (Chaubis Avtar 2)

Another important thing to learn about 'Kaal Purakh' of Sri Dasam Granth is that, while 'Mahakal' is the Supreme Being in Tantrik faiths, he is just a maya-engrossed form of 'Kaal Purakh' in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji. The word 'Kaal' is associated with black colour or blackness. This implies that it is not the purest form of the Supreme Being. 'Akaal' is the central, primal, supreme, and Maya-free form while 'Kaal' is the maya-engrossed form. This 'Kaal' form becomes 'MAHAkaal' when He acquires every 'dark' karam of this world. The addition of 'Maha' does not imply that this form has become the supreme divine form; rather, He has just taken an insignificant form that is absorbed in total blackness. In reality, its only the Supreme Being functioning in all these forms. Perhaps the opposers of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji believe that one half (good virtues, purity) is the creation of the Supreme Being while the other half (darkness, evil) functions independently of Him. The cause of this problem is their ignorant, dualistic reasoning and not Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji.

The adversaries doubt the objectives of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji by depicting 'Kaal Purakh' and 'Mahakal' as the deity of Tantrik faiths. Barring 'Jaap' and 'Akal Ustat', they dismiss all other Banis of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Ji as creations of Shakat-Panthi poets. Their intellect is not even willing to accept 'Kaal Purakh' of the ever-popular 'Bachittar Natak'. These doubts are due to lack of proper understanding of the concepts. Proper, thoughtful analysis brings us to the definite conclusion that all the Banis have been composed by only one writer. If we look at the 'Anaam' (Nameless) God of 'Jaap Sahib', we can see He has unique characteristics as compared to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. For instance, the word 'Anaam' does not appear anywhere in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Maharaj while it has been used ten times in 'Jaap Sahib'. Similarly, the word 'Kaal' has not been used for God even once in Dhan Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji whereas in 'Jaap Sahib' this form appears with great ferocity. Actually, using his infinite intellect, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji has very carefully and patiently presented 'Kaal' form of the Supereme Being before us. He very subtly directs us to the characteristics of 'Kaal' by depicting Him as the Lord of darkness and creator of evil actions, as in ਨਮੋ ਅੰਧਕਾਰੇ.. Salutation to Thee O Creator of pitch darkness! ਨਮੋ ਨਿੱਤ ਨਾਰਾਇਣੇ ਕ੍ਰੂਰ ਕਰਮੇ ॥ Salutation to Thee O Benign Protector Lord! Salutation to Thee O Heinous-actions-Performer Lord! . In the next Bani 'Akaal Ustat', Supreme Being takes on a more concrete Sargun form and many characteristics of 'Mahakal' are presented. And because Sikh faith firmly believes in both Akaal and Kaal forms of the Supreme Being, the next Bani 'Bachittar Natak' begins with eulogy of 'Kaal Purakh' in its longest chapter - 'ਸ੍ਰੀ ਕਾਲ ਜੀ ਕੀ ਉਸਤਤਿ' (Eulogy to Sri Kaal). One important and interesting fact needs to be carefully understood - In 'Akaal Ustat', Sri Guruji has decorated 'Kaal Purakh' with many temporal Sargun qualities and has also associated Him with Nirgun qualities of Akaal. The prime reason for this explicit and deliberate effort is to convey the message that both the forms are not principally different from each other, that they both originate from the same source - the Supreme Being. It would be appropriate to provide brief summary of 'Kaal Purakh' as it appears in these two Banis, so that proofs can be established for the above statements.

In 'Bachittar Natak', the saroop of 'Kaal Purakh' has been described as: Unborn, Lord of Shiva, Great Ruler, Formless, Colourless, Raagless, Infinite, Garbless, Eternal, Beyond desires, Primal Power, Sword wielding, Beyond any defects, Nameless, Great, free of mischief, free of attachments, Pure, omnipresent in three 'Guns', omnipresent in both Devtas and Demons, Free from effects of time. This 'Kaal Purakh' has warrior form too - He is the Maha-Mantra, Mahakal and is decorated with magnificent swords. He beats his drums to inspire righteous forces to wage wars against the impious forces. He has got black and white umbrella over His head, which symbolises Bad and Good respectively. In battlefields, 'Mahakal' laughs hysterically by making 'Ha-Ha-Hoo-Hoo' sounds. This laughter is in fact an inspiration to look forward to Dharam-Yudhs with excitement and vigour. It illustrates that true warriors are fond of Dharam-Yudhs, that they keep their hearts and minds free of anger even while being in the battlefield. With this portrayal of 'Kaal', Sri Guruji has reassured the men of faith of complete security and at the same time has warned immoral people of Kaal's wrath. Sri Guruji clarifies with the following Bachan:

ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਸਭ ਸਾਧ ਉਬਾਰੇ ॥ ਦੁਖੁ ਦੈ ਕੈ ਦੋਖੀ ਸਭ ਮਾਰੇ ॥

At all times, the Lord protected all the saints and hath killed all the malicious persons, subjecting them to great agony. (Bachittar Natak 14/1)

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