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  1. An eyewitness account of Dara Shikohs execution. Its a detailed account of the execution and captures the peoples mood and reactions. reading the account you can see how much people loved dara shikoh, they were all crying and cursing the mughals and even throwing rocks at the pathan that captured dara. The mughals often paraded the person around on a weak looking animal around the streets of delhi to humiliate the person before executing them. They did the same to Banda Singh Bahadur. Dara was a lot more tolerant and had a gd relationship with sikhs and the hindus if he had become king then the fate of india would have been very different. Aurangzeb was a heartless animal and wanted his brothers executed head presented to him on a dish! This robber, who imagined that Dara was attended by a large body of soldiers, received the Prince with apparent respect and cordiality, quartering his men upon the inhabitants, with particular injunctions to supply all their wants, and treat them as friends and brethren. But when Javan Khan ascertained that Dara's followers did not exceed two or three hundred men, he threw off all disguise. It is still doubtful whether he had been tampered with by Aureng-Zebe, or whether he were suddenly tempted to the commission of this monstrous crime. The sight of a few mules laden with the gold, which Dara had saved from the hands of the robbers, by whom he had been constantly harassed, very probably excited his cupidity. Be [97] this as it may, the Patan having assembled, during the night, a considerable number of armed men, seized this gold, together with the women's jewels, and fell upon Dara and Sipah Shikoh, killed the persons who attempted to defend them, and tied the Prince on the back of an elephant. The public executioner was ordered to sit behind, for the purpose of cutting off his head, upon the first appearance of resistance, either on his own part, or on that of any of his adherents; and in this degrading posture Dara was carried to the army before Tata-bakar and delivered into the hands of General Mir-Baba. This officer then commanded the Traitor, Javan Khan, to proceed with his prisoner, first to Lahor and afterwards to Dehli. When the unhappy Prince was brought to the gates of Dehli, it became a question with Aureng-Zebe, whether, in conducting him to the fortress of Gwalior ["Goualeor"], he should be made to pass through the capital. It was the opinion of some courtiers that this was by all means to be avoided, because, not only would such an exhibition be derogatory to the royal family, but it might become the signal for revolt, and the rescue of Dara might be successfully attempted. Others maintained, on the contrary, that he ought to be seen by the whole city; that it was necessary to strike the people with terror and astonishment, and to impress their minds with an idea of the absolute and [98] irresistible power of Aureng-Zebe. It was also advisable, they added, to undeceive the Omrahs [=nobles] and the people, who still entertained doubts of Dara's captivity, and to extinguish at once the hopes of his secret partisans. Aureng-Zebe viewed the matter in the same light; the wretched prisoner was therefore secured on an elephant; his young son, Sipah Shikoh, placed at his side, and behind them, instead of the executioner, was seated Bahadur Khan [one of the royal generals]. This was not one of the majestic elephants of Pegu or Ceylon, which Dara had been in the habit of mounting, pompously caparisoned, the harness gilt, and trappings decorated with figured work; and carrying a beautifully painted howdah inlaid with gold, and a magnificent canopy to shelter the Prince from the sun: Dara was now seen seated on a miserable and worn-out animal, covered with filth; he no longer wore the necklace of large pearls which distinguish the princes of Hindoustan, nor the rich turban and embroidered coat; he and his son were now habited in dirty cloth of the coarsest texture, and his sorry turban was wrapt round with a Kashmir ["Kachemire"] shawl or scarf, resembling that worn by the meanest of the people. Such was the appearance of Dara when led through the Bazars and every quarter of the city. I could not divest myself of the idea that some dreadful execution was about to take place, and felt surprise that government should have the hardihood to commit all these indignities upon a Prince confessedly popular among the lower orders, especially as I saw scarcely any armed force. The people had for some time inveighed bitterly against the unnatural conduct of Aureng-Zebe: the imprisonment of his father, of his son Sultan Mahmud, and of his brother Murad Bakhsh, filled every bosom with horror and disgust. The crowd assembled upon this disgraceful occasion was immense; and everywhere I observed the people weeping, and lamenting the fate of Dara in the most touching [99] language. I took my station in one of the most conspicuous parts of the city, in the midst of the largest bazar; was mounted on a good horse, and accompanied by two servants and two intimate friends. From every quarter I heard piercing and distressing shrieks, for the Indian people have a very tender heart; men, women, and children wailing as if some mighty calamity had happened to themselves. Javan Khan rode near the wretched Dara; and the abusive and indignant cries vociferated as the traitor moved along were absolutely deafening. I observed some faqirs ["Fakires"] and several poor people throw stones at the infamous Pathan; but not a single movement was made, no one offered to draw his sword, with a [100] view of delivering the beloved and compassionated Prince. When this disgraceful procession had passed through every part of Dehli, the poor prisoner was shut up in one of his own gardens, called Haidarabad ["Heider-Abad"]. Aureng-Zebe was immediately made acquainted with the impression which this spectacle produced upon the public mind, the indignation manifested by the populace against the Pathan, the threats held out to stone the perfidious man, and with the fears entertained of a general insurrection. A second council was consequently convened, and the question discussed, whether it were more expedient to conduct Dara to Gwalior, agreeably to the original intention, or to put him to death without further delay.... it was ultimately decided that Dara should die, and that Sipah-Shikoh should be confined in Gwalior. At this meeting Raushanara Begam ["Rauchenara-Begum"] betrayed all her enmity against her hapless brother, combating the arguments of Danishmand Khan ["Danech-Mend"], and exciting Aureng-Zebe to this foul and unnatural murder.... The charge of this atrocious murder was intrusted to a slave of the name of Nazir ["Nazer"], who had been educated by Shah-Jahan, but experienced some ill-treatment from Dara. The Prince, apprehensive that poison would be administered to him, was employed with Sipah Shikoh [102] in boiling lentils, when Nazir and four other ruffians entered his apartment. 'My dear son,' he cried out, 'these men are come to murder us!' He then seized a small kitchen knife, the only weapon in his possession. One of the murderers having secured Sipah Shikoh, the rest fell upon Dara, threw him down, and while three of the assassins held him, Nazir decapitated his wretched victim. The head was instantly carried to Aureng-Zebe, who commanded that it should be placed in a dish, and that water should be brought. The blood was then washed from the face, and when it could no longer be doubted [103] that it was indeed the head of Dara, he shed tears, and said, 'Ai Bad-bakht ["Bed-bakt"]! Ah wretched one! let this shocking sight no more offend my eyes, but take away the head, and let it be buried in Humayun's tomb.' Dara's daughter was taken that same evening to the saraglio, but afterwards sent to Shah-Jahan and Begam-Sahib; who begged of Aureng-Zebe to commit the young Princess to their care. Dara's wife, foreseeing the calamities which awaited her and her husband, had already put a period to her existence, by swallowing poison at Lahor. Sipah Shikoh was immured in the [104] fortress of Gwalior; and soon after these tragical events Javan Khan was summoned before the council, and then dismissed from Dehli with a few presents. He did not escape the fate, however, which he merited, being waylaid and assassinated in a forest, within a few leagues of his own territory. This barbarian had not sufficiently reflected, that though tyrants appear to countenance the blackest crimes while they conduce to their interest, or promote a favourite object, they yet hold the perpetrators in abhorrence, and will not scruple to punish them when they can no longer be rendered subservient to any iniquitous project. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00generallinks/bernier/txt_bernier_dara.html
  2. I found a really cool account of Timur relating how he conquered india. He was brutal.but he lists in detail every city he invaded and how many people he killed. But one can see how islam motivated him and his hatred for idolators: https://www.ibiblio.org/britishraj/Jackson5/chapter09.html Heres an excerpt from his infamous sack of delhi: For these various reasons a great number of fierce Turkish troops were in the city. When the soldiers proceeded to apprehend the Hindus and infidels who had fled to Delhi, many of them drew their swords and offered resistance. The flames of strife thus lighted spread through the entire city from Jahan-panah and Siri to Old Delhi, consuming all they reached. The savage Turks fell to killing and plundering, while the Hindus set fire to their houses with their own hands, burned their wives and children in them, and rushed into the fight and were killed. The Hindus and infidels of the city showed much alacrity and boldness in fighting. The amirs who were in charge of the gates prevented any more soldiers from entering Delhi, but the
  3. I'm sure most of you know the story of Bhai Lalo and living by honest means. I am trying to figure out which historical country it all occurred in, because I want to study the economy there (since Guru Nanak ji identified that Malik Bhago exploited Bhai Lalo's labour). This event occurred in Guruji's first udhasi, so it occurred between 1500-1506 in Saidpur (modern-day Eminabad, Pakistan). It couldn't have been part of the Mughal Empire since that didn't exist until ~20 years later. Can any of you figure out which historical country this took place in, because I'm lost?
  4. How and why Islamic ideology is the fuel behind ISIS. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/roy-abbas/think-isis-are-not-islami_b_8608048.html
  5. 'With one sword we will take authority as 'miran ki miri' (king of kings). With the other, we shall achieve 'piran ki piri' (spiritual supremacy). All those who come our way seeking refuge shall be saved. Those who oppose us shall lose both authorities.' -Sahib Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji. (1) In 1606 A.D., the Mughal emperor Jahangir ordered the execution of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji in order to appease the radical Sunni orthodoxy at his court. In turn he earned the wrath of a fledgling Sikh nation which found a rejuvenation in the form of the executed Guru's successor, Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji. Upon receiving news of his father's last moments, the young Guru ordered his apostles to construct a stone plinth neighboring Harmandir Sahib and prepare it for his coronation. In this task, his apostles were assisted by the duly revered Baba Budha Ji and the Guru's amanuensis pedagogue, Bhai Gurdass Ji. When the day, of his coronation, dawned the Guru marched towards this plinth and seated himself atop it in a Bir-Assan or archer's position. Whereas prior Gurus had often adorned an ascetic apparel on their coronation, he anomalously wore a royal attire with an imperial plum attached to his turban. Baba Budha Ji eventually arrived bearing two swords which he reverentially placed around the young Guru's neck. The latter then stood and in a thundering voice outlined his vision to arm the Sikhs, preserve the poor and sanctify both spirituality and militarism. The stone plinth, atop which he stood, subsequently became loaded with a potent symbolism as the Akal-Bunga, or seat of Akal, from which the Sikhs would commence their new crusade. (2) The sixteen year old Guru's poignant actions hallmarked a new era for the aboriginals of the sub-continent. His defiance, in the aftermath of Maharana Pratap's sporadic mutinies, heralded a turning point in the ubiquitous ethos of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and the destiny of the nation-less Sikhs. Ordered, by their Guru, to discard any fear of death and pain the actions of his Sikhs soon brought, 'assistance to the neighboring Hindus and their Dharma. Those who had once shivered before the Turks, and constantly drowned in a tide of depression and fear; and accepted the faith of the Turks in lieu of their own (i.e. radical Muslims) now hoped that they might escape their miserable lot.' (3) Pledging to birth a dynamic army, the Guru now turned to Baba Budha Ji for assistance. The latter had been the first to learn the martial sciences, crafted by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, and the young Guru's initial instructor in the conduct of warfare. 'The fifth Guru (Guru Arjan Dev Ji) himself a descendant of valorous warriors had many Kshatri-Rajput disciples* and solicited Baba Budha Ji to tutor his son in the martial "vidya" which Guru Nanak Dev Ji had bestowed upon him. The Baba agreed and found the boy to be an apt pupil. Forever grateful to his teacher and reverential of him, he enjoyed gaining the priceless knowledge.' (4) Vigorously entrenched in Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji's psyche was the prophecy uttered by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, which had warned the initial Islamic dynasty, of the sub-continent, the Mughals to desist from tyranny or otherwise face the wrath of his Sikhs. To quicken the realization of his primary predecessor's words, the Guru commenced fathering an army of valorous warriors, the Nihungs. These men were specially handpicked by him and instructed in grappling and armed combat. At least 300 formed his own Praetorian guard in the style of Mughal imperials. (5) Mufti Ali ud' Din notes, 'the reason as to why the name of this group is "Akali" (Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji's soldiers) is that, adjacent to the building associated with Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan is "Akal Bunga", "The locus of Khuda" (i.e., the Almighty), which is associated with Guru Hargobind. The 'Akalis', or 'Khuda's men', as a mark of honour, are associated with this "Bunga" (fortress). The dress of this group was endorsed to be black in observance of mourning to mark Guru Arjan Dev's bereavement. Subsequently, this roaming community took on weapons of steel and demonstrated fearlessness at the time of a mighty assault.' (6) Additionally the Guru divided his forces into a four battalion structure and engineered an efficient chain of command. Each battalion was commanded by an able commander (brigadier) who in turn directly reported to the Guru himself. (7) Whereas the Guru ubiquitously was responsible for his forces as Commander-In-Chief, his four generals were tasked with the daily upkeep of their respective men and training. Amarinder Singh substantiates that the Guru's forces fundamentally consisted of cavalry and infantry, if any, was never used. (8) History vindicates the fact that Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji's meager autochthon force defeated the superior Mughal forces in four consecutive battles. This was incredibly a first time event for the Mughals, who in their five century domination had never faced such vulnerability. The success of the Guru partially owed to his unique stratagems and also to the decisive training of his men. His third battle, at Ruhela Ghat, in 1628 A.D. endorses this actuality. The Mughal C-in-C Abdullah Khan, summoned a counterpart, Berman Khan to punish the supposedly inferior kafir (infidel). The latter met a Sikh, Mathura, in battle who,'pounced forward with sudden speed. Anticipating where Khan was applying his strength (to the blow) he embraced him between both arms. Khan desired to escape but Mathura did not let him. With the strength of his arms, he grappled Berman Khan to the ground. Snatching the sword off him, he then decapitated the Khan, and threw the head afar from his body. Seeing the skill of Mathura, the Guru's army was greatly pleased. The Khan's army was greatly dismayed on seeing their leader dead. Then masses of vengeful Mughals fell upon the Akali warrior Mathura, showering him with spears, sword blows and arrows. Being cut to pieces he himself died killing many enemies.' (9) Kavi Santokh Singh narrates that the Guru's army also hosted several esteemed Muslim warriors, such as the famed Paindeh Khan. In 1634 A.D. Khan confronted the belligerent Didar Ali. Both men warily circled each other until Khan killed Ali's steed. Subsequently, 'the Sayyid (Ali) struck a blow which was blocked by Paindeh Khan on his shield. Then pouncing forward, Khan unleashed a volatile punch to the base of his foe's ear. Without a gasp the Sayyid fell. Dead as if a tree in the wind.' (10) In the same battle the Guru exhibited his own vigorous prowess. Challenged by the Commander Muklis Khan, the Guru ordered his men to disengage from the foe and witness the spectacle which was about to play out. Encircling each other like lions, both warriors emptied their quivers but to Khan's consternation the Guru stood unaffected. Then, after dismounting from his steed, Muklis Khan challenged the Guru to a one-on-one duel. The Guru readily complied and exhorted his foe to, 'display his martial skill with confidence, and thus gain praise as he fought with pride. The warriors of both armies were watching him.' (11) Santokh Singh exhibits the subsequent happenings in terse terms, and with a nimble twist of his quill, 'having patiently digested the words of the Guru, Mukhilis Khan focuses his eyes in his desire to strike. The Guru becomes alert, and moves like a nimble-footed leopard, leaving no opening for his opponent. The Guru is alert and moving all around. Sword in hand, like a hunter, he stalks. Both wait for an opening but each moves with such agility; planning ahead as a master 'shatranj' (Indian chess) player, all potential attacks are thwarted before they could be launched by correct tactical positioning. Mukhilis Khan suddenly advances with his sword raised high. Feigning an attack to the upper body, he deliveres a low blow at once, but the Guru leaps out of harm's way. With his confidence boosted, the Khan strikes a second blow at Guru's body. This blow the Guru catches with a swift deflecting movement of his shield. Thus, drawing the Khan into killing range, the Guru tightens his sword-hand grip as he strikes a deadly back-handed blow below the Khan's raised sword arm; cutting across his midsection, he slices his torso in half. The ribs are cut, and the body falls in two. The head and arms lay on one side, the legs and feet on the other. The Guru's heavily curved Persian 'shamshir' (sword) cuts like wire cuts through soap.' (12) On each occasion, the Guru was forced to fight; his foes, 'fled in defeat as the braves of the Guru shouting "Akal Akal" pounced upon them.' (13) Despite possessing such an innovative force, the Guru desisted from focusing on any personal gains. He imbued the ideologue with which he had ascended the Akal-Bunga on his coronation. His mission, Per se, was to subdue the plagues inflicting his apostles and pave the ground way for any future campaigns. On one occasion Bhai Gurdas asked him whether the Nihungs were needed in the aftermath of his battles. The Guru is said to have retorted, 'Bhai Gurdas if the gardener wishes to preserve his orchard he should ring it with briary saplings. I, as the gardener of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, am only emulating what other gardeners do.' (14) His grandson, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji, would later emulate his resolute stratagems and further expand his mission to transform the Sikhs into self-sufficient nation. Plausibly Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji's Art of War can be summarized via the following aphorism, 'nations possess armies. But only a few armies possess their own nations.' An able commander, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji was the first Sikh Warrior Guru and a subtle pivot on the contemporaneous sub-continental chess board. Modern Sikhs would do well to adopt his ideologue: 'The Science of War and Weapons we train in everyday, we train in so in times of need it comes to our aid.' -Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji to Baba Bidhi Chand Ji. (15) Sources: (1) Kavi Santokh Singh, Suraj Prakash Granth, 7:2408. (2) Singh H (1992-1998); Encyclopedia of Sikhism, 4 vols. Punjab University, Patiala. Referenced under 'Akal-Takhat.' (3) Giani Gian Singh, Twarikh Guru Khalsa, first edition, 1:216. (4) Gurbilas Patshahi 6, (1720), eds. Singh J; Dr. Singh A, Bhasha Vibhag Publishers (1998) Punjab, pg. 54-55. * In the discussed era only the Kshatri caste, whose nobility was exemplified by the Rajput sub-clan, was allowed, as per the Vedas, to wield weaponry. (5) Darshi A.R. (1999) The Gallant Defender, B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh Publishers, Amritsar, Punjab, India. pg. 7. (6) Mufti' Ali ud-Din, Ibratnamah (1854) ed. Muhammad Baqir, 2 vols. Lahore, Pakistan (1961) 1:364-366. (7) Accessed from http://NihangSingh.org. (8) Singh A; (2010) The Last Sunset, The Lotus Collection, an imprint of Roli Books, pg. 28. (9) Kavi Santokh Singh, Suraj Prakash Granth, 8:2930-2932. (10) Ibid, 8:2851-2852. (11) Ibid, 8:2851-2852. (12) Ibid, 8:2852-2853. (13) Giani Gian Singh, Twarikh Guru Khalsa, 1:488. (14) Accessed from http://shop.gt1588.com/collections/prints?page=2 (15) Kavi Santokh Singh, Suraj Prakash Granth, 8:2957. http://tisarpanth.blogspot.co.nz/2014/07/the-armed-sage.html?view=magazine
  6. or were they just brainwashed? \I was watching a movie where a guy killed a soldier on the opposing army as he was surrendering, and I though that was justice done until I thought that the guy was probably just brainwashed by his ruler to attack them. It then got me thinking of our history, and how we fought the Mughals. Were their soldiers inherently evil, or just brainwashed? Would they do the things they did if they knew the real story? Cuz im guessing they wouldn;t had they known of the Guru's greatness. OR was it more like the police in 1984 where they knew what they were doing, where they knew Sikhs were innocent but they didn't stop and thus had to be killed? Also, any case where we killedd an unarmed soldier? I tihnk i may recall a story where someone was stoned to death by us? I might be incredibly wrong.
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